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|Country Availability||DK, EE, FI, IS, LT, LV, NO, SE|
|Data Sheet Link||https://www.adipogen.com/productmanagement/resource/download/type/sheet/id/11476|
|Supplier||Adipogen Life Sciences|
|Notes||Chemical. Formula: C84H140N14O18S. MW: 1666.2. Synthetic. R-FSL-1 (R-Pam2CGDPKHPKSF) is a synthetic lipoprotein that represents the N-terminal part of the 44kDa lipoprotein LP44 of Mycoplasma salivarium. The naturally occurring R-stereoisomer is biologically more active than the S-stereoisomer. Stimulator of TLR2/TLR6. Inducer of TNF-alpha production in macrophages. Upregulates proinflammatory cytokines. Activator of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB.|
|Alias Names||Fibroblast-stimulating Lipopeptide; R-Pam2CGDPKHPKSF; (R)-Pam2Cys-Gly-Asp-Pro-Lys-His-Pro-Lys-Ser-Phe-OH|
|Protocol||Note: FSL-1 stimulation induces a MyD88-dependent signaling cascade leading to the activation of NF-kappaB and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. FSL-1 exhibits a higher stimulatory activity than MALP-2 when tested for its ability to induce the production of TNF-alpha in macrophages and NF-kappaB in TLR2/TLR6 transfected HEK293 cells. Depending on the sensitivity of the in vitro assay, the recommended working concentration for specific stimulation of innate immunity via TLR2/TLR6 heterodimers is 10-100nM. FSL-1 is water soluble in contrast to MALP2.|
|Purity||Absence of detectable protein or DNA contaminants with agonistic TLR activity.|
|References||The N-terminal lipopeptide of a 44-kDa membrane-bound lipoprotein of Mycoplasma salivarium is responsible for the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on the cell surface of normal human gingival fibroblasts: K.I. Shibata, et al.; J. Immunol. 165, 6538 (2000) | Discrimination of bacterial lipoproteins by Toll-like receptor 6: O. Takeuchi, et al.; Int. Immunol. 13, 933 (2001) | Relationship between structures and biological activities of mycoplasmal diacylated lipopeptides and their recognition by Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 6: T. Okusawa, et al.; Infect. Immun. 72, 1657 (2004) | Involvement of suppressors of cytokine signaling in toll-like receptor-mediated block of dendritic cell differentiation: H. Bartz, et al.; Blood 108, 4102 (2006) | Effects of repeated injections of fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 on fever, formation of cytokines, and on the responsiveness to endotoxin in guinea-pigs: A. Greis, et al.; Acta Physiol. 197, 35 (2009) | Regulators of G-protein signalling are modulated by bacterial lipopeptides and lipopolysaccharide: S. Riekenberg, et al.; FEBS J. 276, 649 (2009) | Toll-like receptors and innate immunity: H. Kumar, et al.; BBRC 388, 621 (2009) | Lipoteichoic Acid Induces Unique Inflammatory Responses when Compared to Other Toll-Like Receptor 2 Ligands: E.M. Long, et al.; PLoS One 4, e5601 (2009) | A new cell-based innate immune receptor assay for the examination of receptor activity, ligand specificity, signalling pathways and the detection of pyrogens: A. Burger-Kentischer, et al.; J. Immunol. Methods 358, 93 (2010) | Toll-like receptor 2 (P631H) mutant impairs membrane internalization and is a dominant negative allele: G.E. Etokebe, et al.; Scand. J. Immunol. 71, 369 (2010) | TLR2 stimulation drives human naive and effector regulatory T cells into a Th17-like phenotype with reduced suppressive function: M.H. Nyirenda, et al.; J. Immunol. 187, 2278 (2011) | A subclass of acylated anti-inflammatory mediators usurp Toll-like receptor 2 to inhibit neutrophil recruitment through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: E.M. Long, et al.; PNAS 108, 16357 (2011) | Activation of endothelial TLR2 by bacterial lipoprotein upregulates proteins specific for the neutrophil response: K. Wilhelmsen, et al.; Innate Immun. 18, 602 (2012) | FcepsilonR1-mediated mast cell reactivity is amplified through prolonged Toll-like receptor-ligand treatment: R. Saluja, et al.; PLoS One 7, e43547 (2012)|
|Solubility||Soluble in water (10mg/ml). Use a homogeniser or sonicator to prepare a homogenous solution.|
|Substrate / Buffer||Lyophilized.|
|Technical Specifications||R-FSL-1 (R-Pam2CGDPKHPKSF) is a synthetic lipoprotein that represents the N-terminal part of the 44kDa lipoprotein LP44 of Mycoplasma salivarium. The naturally occurring R-stereoisomer is biologically more active than the S-stereoisomer. Stimulator of TLR2/TLR6. Inducer of TNF-alpha production in macrophages. Upregulates proinflammatory cytokines. Activator of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB.|
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