See the difference to make big breakthroughs in your tumor microenvironment research
In the world of next generation immuno-oncology research, having confidence in your immunoassay results is vital. Unfortunately, 75% of antibodies in today’s market are non-specific or simply do not work at all.* That’s why at Bethyl, they manufacture and validate every antibody on-site to ensure target specificity and sensitivity. More than 10,000 independent citations over the past 15 years have proven that their antibodies will function as designed in your assay — and they offer a 100% guarantee.
Immuno-oncology has moved from an emerging field to one of the cornerstones of cancer therapy. Unlike traditional therapies such as radiation or chemotherapy which target the tumor itself, immunotherapy stimulates the patient’s own immune system to target and eradicate cancerous cells. In order to attack cancerous cells, the immune system must be able to respond in several ways. First, antigen presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells must process tumor associated antigens (TAA) derived from dying cancer cells and display them on their surface via MHC-II receptors. Second, antigen presenting cells must generate a protective T-cell population. Last, cancer-specific, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells must evade immunosuppressive (checkpoints) signals being expressed in the tumor.
Successful inhibition of the PD-1 and CTLA-4 signaling systems have revolutionized treatment options.
Early immunotherapy ideas involved using vaccines to present tumor associated antigens to APCs. Recently, the most exciting therapies have involved clearing the immunosuppressive signals within the tumor using checkpoint inhibitors. Successful inhibition of the PD-1 and CTLA-4 signaling systems have revolutionized treatment options. The identification of other receptor systems such as Tim-3, Lag-3, and OX40, which down regulate T-cells, has expanded the possibility of new checkpoint inhibitors.
As different immunotherapies have become available as treatment options, it is clear that not every patient responds. Thus, profiling the tumor microenvironment to determine the type of immune cells present and expression of immunosuppressive signals within the tumor is a key component of designing new therapies and predicting responsive patients.
Bethyl maintains an extensive catalog of antibodies that can be used to identify immune cell type, tumor cells, and the presence of checkpoint inhibitors.
* Weller, MG, Analytical Chemistry Insights: 11, 21-27 (2016)
Detection of human CD8 (red) and FoxP3 (green) in FFPE colon carcinoma. Rabbit anti-CD8a recombinant monoclonal [BLR044F] (A700-044) and rabbit anti-FoxP3 recombinant monoclonal [BLR034F] (A700-034). Secondary: HRP-conjugated goat-anti-rabbit IgG (A120-501P) Substrate: Opal™ 590 and 520. Counterstain: DAPI (blue).
Detection of human CD3 (green), CD20 (magenta), CD68 (yellow), and Cytokeratin (red) in FFPE human NSCLC. Antibodies: Rabbit anti-CD3E recombinant monoclonal [BL-298-5D12] (A700-016), mouse anti-CD20 monoclonal [L26] (A500-017A), mouse anti-CD68 recombinant monoclonal [KP-1] (A500-018A), mouse anti-Cytokeratin monoclonal [AE1/AE3] (A500-019A). Substrate: Opal™ reagent. Counterstain: DAPI (blue).